Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by increased blood sugar levels in the human body. Blood sugar found in our body is also called glucose which is the primary source of energy for us.
Sometimes our body doesn’t produce sufficient amount of insulin or insulin is unable to perform as normal. In such a situation, glucose stays in the blood instead of travelling to the whole body. Hence the glucose levels become high in the blood which can cause diabetes.
There are three main types of diabetes which can occur in any age irrespective of gender - Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational. Let us understand each of these
Type 1 diabetes was earlier known as juvenile diabetes because it develops mostly in young people but it is also found in adults over the past.
In type 1 diabetes, the human body produces an insufficient amount of insulin because of a weak immune system. The weak immune system causes the destruction of cells responsible to make insulin.
Type 2 diabetes was sometimes known as adult-onset diabetes as it was considered to impact adults. However, type 2 diabetes can affect people of any age including children as well.
In general, type 2 diabetes affects middle-aged or older persons. People carrying excessive weight and are physically inactive are considered at higher risk of developing this diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when a condition of insulin resistance takes place. In this condition, fat, muscle & liver cells do not use insulin hormone for carrying glucose across the body cells.
Gestational diabetes can take place in women during pregnancy. Women in pregnancy produce some hormones that can lead to the condition - insulin resistance.
Every woman can have insulin resistance during their late pregnancy so a lack of enough insulin in pregnant women is responsible for developing gestational diabetes.
Gestational diabetes generally disappears post baby’s birth. However, such women are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in their life.
|A1C Test||Fasting Blood Sugar Test||Glucose Tolerance Test|
|Diabetes||6.5% or above||126 mg/dL or above||200 mg/dL or above|
|Prediabetes||5.7-6.4%||100-125 mg/dL||140-199 mg/dL|
|Normal||Below 5.7%||99 mg/dL or below||140 mg/dL or below|
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