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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and usually goes away after the baby is born. It usually occurs around the 24th to 28th week of pregnancy.

Causes of Gestational Diabetes:

The usual cause of gestational diabetes is an aberration in insulin production during pregnancy and changes in glucose metabolism during pregnancy. As insulin is absorbed in fat and there is excess deposition of fat during pregnancy this can also be attributed to the development of diabetes.

Risk Factors:

  • Increasing Age
  • High BMI before pregnancy*

*Threefold risk for obese women as compared to non – obese women (WHO)

  • Smoking doubles the risk
  • A sudden increase in weight during pregnancy
  • The short interval between pregnancies.
  • Previous Miscarriages
  • A family history of diabetes.

What can Gestational Diabetes lead to?

  • Large for date babies.
  • Difficulty during childbirth.
  • Increase in child mortality.
  • Birth injuries to the child.
  • Hypoglycemia of the newborn.
  • Increase in maternal mortality.
  • Impaired neurological development of the baby.


Treatment of Gestational Diabetes includes:

  • Insulin
  • Metformin
  • Other Medications

Nondrug Treatment –

  • BMI reduction to less than 27
  • Graded Exercise therapy

How can you prevent the development of Gestational Diabetes?

For every mother child’s wellbeing is of utmost importance. Here are some steps you can take to prevent the development of Gestational Diabetes:

  • No Smoking
  • No Alcohol Consumption
  • Physical Activity under the guidance of fitness expert
  • Planning and eating a healthy diet as per the dietician
  • Maintaining a stress-free environment.
  • Monitoring your blood sugar levels
  • Having regular health checkups *

*World Health Organization recommends at least 4 visits to the doctor during pregnancy.

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