Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a hallmark sign of diabetes and pre-diabetes. This develops when there is too much sugar in the blood. Several factors contribute to Hyperglycemia in diabetics including physical activity choices, illness, food, physical activity, non-diabetes medications or not taking sufficient glucose lowering medications.
The symptoms of Hyperglycemia include:
• Increased thirst
• Frequent urination
• Blurred vision
Untreated Hyperglycemia can cause long term complications such as:
• Nerve damage
• Cardiovascular disease
• Kidney damage or kidney failure
• Bone and joint problems
• Skin problems such as bacterial infections, fungal infections and non-healing wounds
• Teeth and gum infections
• Feet problems caused by poor blood flow or damaged nerves that can lead to serious infections
If blood sugar rises high for a prolonged period of time, it can lead to two serious conditions such as:
• Diabetic ketoacidosis that develops when there is too little insulin in the body.
• Diabetic Hyperosmolar syndrome that occurs when people produce insulin, but it doesn't work properly.
Insulin is responsible for circulating glucose throughout the body's cells. Without appropriate level of insulin, the body starts using fat to generate energy. This usually happens when an individual skips doses of insulin or when there is an insulin imbalance due to a stressful situation or sickness.
When our body fails to use insulin and replaces the mechanism with fat, proteins called ketones are released into the blood, which cause a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Some of the extra ketones, usually glucose passes out with urine.
Increase in ketones can be problematic because they start turning the blood acidic. This disturbs the body's natural chemical balance.
Controlling blood sugar
Here are a few suggestions that can help keep your blood sugar in control:
• Follow your diabetes meal plan- Sticking to a nutritious diet plan is very important. Consume fruits and vegetables rich in fiber to manage the body's absorption of glucose. Eating food on time is a big mandate!
• Monitor your blood sugar-Regular self monitoring of blood glucose levels with a glucometer will help you identify the onset of symptoms and avoid hyperglycemia.
• Take medication as prescribed by your doctor- Adjust your medication if you change your physical activity. Don't skip any medication as it may cause fluctuations in insulin.
Contact a doctor immediately on The Wellness Corner, if you have any signs or symptoms of this condition!